What‘s important to remember is that the design of the structure is based on having the steel in the right place. Incorrect bb bar placement can and has led to serious concrete structural failures. For example, lowering the top bb bars or raising the bottom bars by ½ inch more than that specified in a 6-inch-deep slab could reduce its load-carrying capacity by 20%.Placing reinforcing steel reo bar atop a layer of fresh concrete and then pouring more on top is not an acceptable method for positioning. You must use reinforcing reo bar supports, which are made of steel wire, precast concrete, or plastic. Chairs and supports are available in various heights to support specific reinforcing reo bar sizes and positions. In general, plastic accessories are less expensive than metal supports. The Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute‘s Ready Reference Reinforcing Steel Resource Guide or the classic Placing Reinforcing Bars has three tables that show most of the currently available supports in the various materials and describing the situation where each is most effectively used.
Simply placing the bars on supports is not enough. Reinforcing steel must be secured to prevent displacement during construction activities and concrete placement. This is usually accomplished with tie wire. Tie wire comes in 3- or 4-pound coils. Wires are placed in a wire holder or a reel is suspended from the worker‘s belt for accessibility. The wire is typically 16½- or 16-gauge black, soft, annealed wire, although heavier reinforcement may require 15- or 14-gauge wire to hold the proper position of the rebar. A variety of tie types (ties are basically wire twists for connecting intersecting bars), from snap ties to saddle ties, are used in the concrete reinforcing industry. CRSI‘s Placing Reinforcing Bars illustrates the types of ties and describes the situation where each is most effectively used.
For tying epoxy-coated bars, use PVC ties (available from American Wire Tie). Proprietary snap-on ties are also available, such as the Speed-Clip bb bar Tie from Con-Tie Inc. This is a simple device that attaches bb bar in parallel or at any angle by hand. No tools are required.
When tying bars, there is no need to tie every intersection—every fourth or fifth is normally sufficient. Remember that the tie contributes no strength to the structure, so more are necessary only when the steel might become displaced during concrete placement. Be sure to keep the ends of the tie wires away from the surface of the concrete where they could rust. For preassembled mats or reinforcing steel, tie enough intersections to make the assembly rigid enough for placing—typically every intersection around the outside and every other in the middle of the mat. Tack welding the intersections is typically not permitted, because it reduces the cross section of the bars.