and 12% tin. Bronze may also contain manganese, aluminum, nickel, phosphorus, silicon, arsenic, or zinc.
Now, copper alloys generally are called brass, with bronze sometimes considered a type of brass. To avoid confusion, museums and historical texts typically use the inclusive term
"copper alloy." In science and engineering, bronze and brass are defined according to their element composition.BRONZE PROPERTIES
For sculpture casting, this is desirable, as it helps to fill a mold.
The oxide layer protects the interior metal from further corrosion. However, if chlorides are present (as from sea water), copper chlorides form, which can cause "bronze disease"
-- a condition in which corrosion works through the metal and destroys it.Unlike steel, striking bronze against a hard surface won't generate sparks. This makes bronze useful for metal used around flammable or explosive materials.
The bronze age in China and India occurred at roughly the same time. Even during the Bronze Age, there were a few items crafted from meteoritic iron, but the smelting of iron was uncommon.
The Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age, starting around 1300 BC. Even during the Iron Age, bronze was widely used.USES OF BRONZE
Bronze is used in architecture for structural and design elements, for bearings because of its friction properties, and as phosphor bronze in musical instruments, electrical contacts,
and ship propellers. Aluminum bronze is used to make machine tools and some bearings. Bronze wool is used instead of steel wool in woodworking because it doesn't discolor oak.
Bronze has been used since ancient times to make sculptures. The Assyrian king Sennacherib (706-681 BC) claimed to be the first person to cast huge bronze sculptures using two-part molds,
although the lost-wax method was used to cast sculptures long before this time.